Potassium iodide is an inorganic chemical compound which is denoted by the chemical formula KI. What year did Halloween fall on a Saturday? [24], The World Health Organization does not recommend KI prophylaxis for adults over 40 years, unless the radiation dose from inhaled radioiodine is expected to threaten thyroid function, because the KI side effects increase with age and may exceed the KI protective effects; "...unless doses to the thyroid from inhalation rise to levels threatening thyroid function, that is of the order of about 5 Gy. All of these doses should be compared with the far lower dose of iodine needed in normal nutrition, which is only 150 μg per day (150 micrograms, not milligrams). Key Republicans break with Trump on vote counts, 'Stop the count': Trump backers rally at vote centers, Biden rebuilding 'blue wall' in race for White House, Union members picked Biden after Trump 'abandoned' them, Fox News hosts question network's Ariz. call for Biden, Falcons player is brutally honest after not being traded, Trump campaign unleashes wave of suits in key states, 'Witches' backlash grows among the disability community, Black men drifted from Dems to Trump in record numbers.

Potassium iodide cannot protect against any other mechanisms of radiation poisoning, nor can it provide any degree of protection against dirty bombs that produce radionuclides other than those of iodine. The structure of a KI molecule is illustrated below. [45], In the Netherlands, the central storage of iodine-pills is located in Zoetermeer, near The Hague. [11] In the United States a course of treatment is less than US$25.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved dosing of potassium iodide for this purpose with iobenguane, is as follows (per 24 hours): infants less than 1 month old, 16 mg; children 1 month to 3 years, 32 mg; children 3 years to 18 years, 65 mg; adults 130 mg.[14] However, some sources recommend alternative dosing regimens. Air will oxidize iodide, as evidenced by the observation of a purple extract when aged samples of KI are rinsed with dichloromethane.

Potassium iodide is a metal-halide salt featuring an ionic bond between the potassium cation (K+) and the iodide anion (I–).

For protection of the thyroid against radioiodine (iodine-131) contamination, the convenient standard 130 mg KI pill is used, if available. It is an ionic compound which is produced industrially by treating potassium hydroxide (KOH) with iodine. "[40], Chernobyl also demonstrated that the need to protect the thyroid from radiation was greater than expected. In 2012, Fleming Co. sold all its product rights and manufacturing facility to other companies and no longer exists. Thyroid iodine uptake blockade with potassium iodide is used in nuclear medicine scintigraphy and therapy with some radioiodinated compounds that are not targeted to the thyroid, such as iobenguane (MIBG), which is used to image or treat neural tissue tumors, or iodinated fibrinogen, which is used in fibrinogen scans to investigate clotting. so that the charges are balanced and it is neutral overall. However, KI administration 96 h or more before 131I exposure has no significant protective effect. Within ten years of the accident, it became clear that thyroid damage caused by released radioactive iodine was virtually the only adverse health effect that could be measured. It is produced industrially by treating KOH with iodine. As reported by the NRC, studies after the accident showed that "As of 1996, except for thyroid cancer, there has been no confirmed increase in the rates of other cancers, including leukemia, among the... public, that have been attributed to releases from the accident.

The oxidation of iodide causes slow loss of iodine content from iodised salts that are exposed to excess air. This is not the same as blocking the thyroid's release of thyroid hormone, for which the adult dose is different (and is actually higher by a factor of 7 or 8[citation needed]), and for which KI anti-radiation pills (not a common medical treatment form of KI) are not usually available in pharmacies, or normally used in hospitals, or by physicians.

"[21] For optimal prevention, KI must be dosed daily until a risk of significant exposure to radioiodine by either inhalation or ingestion no longer exists.

Iobenguane Sulfate I 131 Injection Diagnostic package insert. It has a highly bitter, saline taste. [15], Not all sources are in agreement on the necessary duration of thyroid blockade, although agreement appears to have been reached about the necessity of blockade for both scintigraphic and therapeutic applications of iobenguane. [53] Because KI is about 76.4% iodide by weight, SSKI contains about 764 mg iodide per mL. [12] Potassium iodate (KIO3) is used to add iodine to some salts so that the iodine is not lost by oxidation. Unlike I2, I3− salts can be highly water-soluble. An ionic formula, like \(\ce{NaCl}\), is an empirical formula. Still have questions? Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. A saturated solution of KI (SSKI) is typically given orally in adult doses several times a day (5 drops of SSKI assumed to be ​1⁄3 mL) for thyroid blockade (to prevent the thyroid from excreting thyroid hormone) and occasionally this dose is also used, when iodide is used as an expectorant (the total dose is about one gram KI per day for an adult). Potassium iodide can block absorption of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland through flooding the thyroid with non-radioactive iodine and preventing intake of radioactive molecules, thereby protecting the thyroid from cancer causing radiation.

Neither SSKI or KI tablets are used as nutritional supplements, since the nutritional requirement for iodine is only 150 micrograms (0.15 mg) of iodide per day. If your stomach starts to get upset (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or diarrhea), consult with your doctor. one potassium ion to one chloride ion. Required fields are marked *.

[citation needed] By saturating the body with a source of stable iodide prior to exposure, inhaled or ingested 131I tends to be excreted, which prevents radioiodine uptake by the thyroid.

== Potassium (K) and iodine (I) combine in a one-to-one ratio to form potassium iodide, which has KI as its chemical or molecular formula. Your email address will not be published. Potassium iodide is highly soluble in water so SSKI is a concentrated source of KI. [citation needed] In an accidental event or attack on a nuclear power plant, or in nuclear bomb fallout, volatile fission product radionuclides may be released. Here are some examples. It is used as a nutritional supplement in the human diet as well as in animal feeds. Dedicated nutritional iodide tablets containing 0.15 mg (150 micrograms (μg)) of iodide, from KI or from various other sources (such as kelp extract) are marketed as supplements, but they are not to be confused with the much higher pharmaceutical dose preparations. The table shows the names and formulae of some common ions. Ex: How do I write a formula for potassium iodide? To deduce the formulae of ionic compounds, the formulae of their ions can be used.

KCI covalent ba{ci03} ionic NH 4 CI ionic …  M, the concentration of hydroxide is:. When a metal element reacts with a non-metal element an ionic compound is formed. lithium iodide lithium monoiodide monolithium iodide monolithium monoiodide. Chronic overexposure can have adverse effects on the thyroid. [28], The use of a particular 'Iodine tablet' used in portable water purification has also been determined as somewhat effective at reducing radioiodine uptake. Aqueous KI3, "Lugol's solution", is used as a disinfectant and as an etchant for gold surfaces. [3], The uses of KI include as a nutritional supplement in animal feeds and also the human diet. [44], It was reported on March 16, 2011, that potassium iodide tablets were given preventively to U.S.

It is produced industrially by treating KOH with iodine.[32]. All Rights Reserved.

The formula for an ionic compound must contain the same number of positive and negative charges so that the charges are balanced and it is neutral overall. [4], Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, and swelling of the salivary glands. "[20], The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services restated these two years later as "The downward KI (potassium iodide) dose adjustment by age group, based on body size considerations, adheres to the principle of minimum effective dose. Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement. What does mbs adj on a bank statement mean?

[9] Some of the earliest uses included for syphilis.[9]. "[20] Consequently, far more people than anticipated were affected by the radiation, which caused the United Nations to report in 2002 that "The number of people with thyroid cancer... has exceeded expectations.  in an aqueous solution is 7.6 × 10 Potassium iodide and anti thyroid medications are also used to prepare the thyroid gland for surgical removal, to treat other overactive thyroid disorders (hyperthyroidism), and to protect the thyroid in an emergency of radiation exposure. Elsievier Publishing, US Food and Drug Administration, FDA Talk Paper: Guidance on Protection Against Thyroid Cancer in Case of a Nuclear Accident, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Assessment of the Use of Potassium Iodide (KI) As a Public Protective Action During Severe Reactor Accidents Quoting Thyroid Cancer in Children of Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accident, NUREG-1633, United Nations: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Chernobyl, a Continuing Catastrophe, New York and Geneva, 2000, World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/search-fda-guidance-documents/potassium-iodide-thyroid-blocking-agent-radiation-emergencies, "43-2035 AdreView Panel PI 091908:Layout 1", "Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents", "Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies", https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/emergencies/ki.htm, "POTASSIUM IODIDE - ORAL (SSKI) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions", "Iodide as a Fluorescence Quencher and Promoter—Mechanisms and Possible Implications", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Iodide prophylaxis in Poland after the chernobyl reactor accident: Benefits and risks", "Vegetables near stricken plant test high for radiation", six questions about a half of million iodine pills, "REQUEST FOR INFORMATION:CRITICAL FOREIGN DEPENDENCIES", "Potassium Iodide Dosage Guidelines & Frequently Asked Questions", "Potassium Iodide: An Antidote for Radiation Exposure", "Oral potassium iodide for the treatment of sporotrichosis", "Successful therapy of refractory erythema nodosum associated with Crohn's disease using potassium iodide", World Health Organization's guidelines for iodine prophylaxis following a nuclear accident, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Potassium_iodide&oldid=983526963, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, iOSAT, SSKI, ThyroSafe, ThyroShield, others, Saturated solutions of potassium iodide can be an emergency treatment for, Iodide solutions made from a few drops of SSKI added to drinks have also been used as, Potassium iodide has been used for symptomatic treatment of.

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